When reviewing details about Stachybotrys Chartarum, which is, in layman's terms, referred to as 'black mold', it is integral to cite information from reputable sources; such as academic journals and peer reviewed writings. Here three interesting points about Stachybotrys Chartarum from the Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents:
Beasley, V., & Haschek, W. (2009) Trichothecene Mycotoxins (on-line) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents.
The following two points are derived from Clinical Microbiology Reviews:
Ghannoum, M., Kuhn, D. (2003) Indoor Mold, Toxigenic Fungi, and Stachybotrys chartarum: Infectious Disease Perspective. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 16(1): 144–172.
Disclaimer: Content on this website should not be considered medical advice, and is not being published by a medical professional.
Once Mold Remediation has been completed by a licensed remediation company, how can one be sure that they performed the work sufficiently and that the mold has been eradicated to a relevant standard?
The answer is to have a post clearance mold inspection and testing performed in the area(s) of concern. A certified mold inspector will have the knowledge and training to look for, and identify, quality assurance indicators for satisfactory remediation. The certified inspector will also perform air quality testing in the contained areas where the mold was previously an issue; the air quality testing will further reinforce the sufficiency of the remediation work performed, and also reassure the client that the air quality has been replenished to a satisfactory standard in the property via accredited lab data.
The quality assurance indicators observed and documented by the inspector will be photographed and noted, which will then be transcribed into a clearance report with the relevant lab data to affirm the clearance of the area from active mold growth, as well as the previously active moisture source.
To summarize, the following points should be concluded in the clearance report by the certified mold inspector:
The clearance inspection and testing hold the remediation firm accountable for the work performed, as well as reassuring the occupant of the building that there is no longer a mold concern. If the clearance inspection and testing fail, then the remediation company will have to readdress the area until it has been satisfactorily passed.
If you are need of a clearance mold inspection and testing, Mold Mitigation Professionals can handle your concerns with appropriate certifications, infrared thermal imaging to assure the client that the moisture source has been eradicated, fast turn around times and air testing via the fully accredited EMLab P&K.
The standards outlined here were based off the government standards from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (2008) Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments. November, 2008. https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/epi/epi-mold-guidelines.pdf
When homeowners discover mold in their home, or moisture (both active moisture or moisture retention from a previous leak), there is often a question of whether or not there are insects associated with the mold growth i.e. does the visible mold attract insects, which, in turn, feed off the mold? In short, the answer is yes; mold growth and moisture can attract certain particular insects, which can create a fleeting insect infestation in your property.
One reason is that certain types of insects, such as the ‘foreign grain beetle’ or ‘Ahasverus advena”, feed predominantly on microbial fungi (mold/mildew). Furthermore, these types of insects require similar environments as mold to thrive, such as high humidity; generally, mold can begin to grow when the relative humidity levels are greater than 55-60% in a property, which is why homeowners often see mold growth in attics. The Foreign Grain Beetle can often be found in older homes where bathrooms have higher humidity levels which permit mold growth and ideal habitats for the insect.
Another insect, known as ‘booklice’, are miniscule insects which also found in high humidity areas with mold growth. They are commonly found in structures with higher moisture levels, as well as poorly ventilated structures. These types of insects are most discovered in household items, such as books and rugs. Indicators: One indicator of insect infestation or presence in a property is the fecal pellets left behind in a damp area i.e. such as on a damp drywall in a basement. Homeowners can occasionally mistaken the fecal pellets for mold, but the two are correlated, so it isn’t completely unreasonable to make the association. What can then occur for homeowners is not only being subjected to the potential mycotoxins from mold growth, but also mite allergens.
Finally, spiders can also be a potential indicator for mold growth since spiders are predators on other live insects. Therefore, if there are several spiders congregating in one area of the home, there may be other live insects in that area, as well as fungi growth at the very bottom of that food chain. In conclusion, mold does attract insects, but it varies dependent on the conditions in the property and is not a foregone conclusion.
When wood, processed for building materials in properties, is sourced, sugars and a multitude of other nutrients are exposed for an optimized site for fungi to colonize. Often, in a property, especially in areas such as crawlspaces or attics, inspectors will come across this fungi; known as 'lumberyard mold'. Lumberyard mold is generally found on new construction materials, and the term 'Lumberyard mold' can refer to a group of molds which are known to be present on these materials.
It is during these instances that it is ideal to perform a swab test on the growth to determine whether it is lumberyard mold or not; since lumberyard mold would be considered 'benign'. From this diagnosis, it could be extrapolated whether or not remediation may be needed in the property, depending on the square footage of the growth in the first place.
Such examples of these types of fungi include both Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma. These types of mold are not generally associated with any particular moisture problems in a property, and are, in fact, usually present on the building materials prior to construction.
Furthermore, when it comes to the byproducts of these molds, no mycotoxins (the metabolic production from molds which cause allergy-type symptoms), have been documented or reported.
It is worth being mindful of another type of somewhat common mold documented on building materials, and is considered a "lumberyard mold", which is Basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes are generally white in color and can penetrate through the wood tissue, compromising the wood and structural integrity of an area.
Another thing to be mindful of when it comes to Lumberyard mold are secondary colonizers i.e. other molds, such as Aspergillus, which can compromise the air quality, which can colonize the area alongside the Lumberyard mold.
Ultimately, due to the plethora of genera potentially present in an area, it is advised to have the surface growth tested to determine the correct course of action if the area affected is great enough.
Thadigiri, F. (2009) Lumberyard Mold and Sap Stain. The Environmental Reporter. Volume 7, Issue 5. https://www.emlab.com/s/sampling/env-report-05-2009.html
A frequent question posited by clients is where their mold issue stemmed from. Often, if there is a mold issue relating to an elevated humidity issue in a property, such as is often found in properties by the sea, there is a bafflement as to how the mold started. The following points outline where the mold has come from:
When a mold professional is performing an air quality test in your property, ensure they are documenting all of the current conditions i.e. AC on/off, open windows, heavy foot-traffic, mold recently disturbed in a any way. All of these conditions can potentially affect the air quality test results.
The author of our microbial blog is Fareed Nazaryfar. He holds a Master's degree in Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry from Newcastle University (United Kingdom). He is also a Certified Mold Inspector, as well as an Environmental Manager-holding an ISO 14001 certification in Environmental Management.
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